Sphenoid dural arteriovenous fistulas.

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Sphenoid dural arteriovenous fistulas.

Neurosurg Rev. 2019 Dec 07;:

Authors: Ghali MGZ

Sphenoid wing dural AVFs represent a rare clinical entity. These lesions may be asymptomatic or present with focal neurologic deficits, intracranial venous hypertension, or intracranial hemorrhage. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and diagnostic imaging. They are alternatively classified as lesions of either the greater or lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. We performed a search of the PubMed database of studies evaluating the clinical behavior and surgical and endovascular therapies of these lesions. Dural AVFs draining into the superficial middle cerebral vein and/or laterocavernous sinus, or rather, lesions of the greater wing of the sphenoid, exhibit a greater likelihood of developing an aggressive clinical course, with higher probability of cortical venous reflux and consequent intracranial venous hypertension, intracranial hemorrhage, and symptomatic presentation. Dural AVFs of the sphenoparietal sinus, that is, lesions of the lesser wing of the sphenoid, typically exhibit a more benign clinical course, as there is a prominent epidural venous drainage into the cavernous sinus, reducing the risk of cortical venous reflux, and consequently, the probability of intracranial venous hypertension, hemorrhage, and floridly symptomatic presentation. These lesions may be treated via surgical clipping of the fistulous point, transarterial or transvenous embolization, and/or stereotactic radiosurgery. Though surgical intervention was the principal therapy due to facility of craniotomy access to the fistulous point, embolization has become standard of care permitted by innovation in endovascular technology. The natural history, clinical presentation, angioarchitecture, diagnosis, and management of these lesions are reviewed and discussed.

PMID: 31811518 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]